Category Archives: Africa

Burkina Faso: Peace and social cohesion at the heart of the book “The problem tree and other news” by Lacina Téguéra


An article by Mamadou Zongo in Le Faso

A teacher and journalist, Lacina Téguéra presented his book entitled “The problem tree and other news”, this Saturday, June 17, 2023 at the headquarters of Editions Plum’Afrik, in Ouagadougou, in the presence of the godfather Jean Marie Kafando.

Burkina Faso is experiencing an unprecedented security crisis marked by terrorist attacks. In addition to the efforts made by the political and military authorities for the reconquest of the entire national territory, each citizen, according to his skills, contributes in his own way to this fight against the terrorist Hydra. It is in this sense that Lacina Téguéra has given himself the mission of promoting the values of peace and social cohesion through its collection of short stories “The problem tree and other news”.

Drawing inspiration from his daily experience, the author addresses themes such as social cohesion, living together, literacy, education, respect for tradition, youth employment, the condition of African women, leadership issues, etc. “It’s to tell the Burkinabè population to come back again to social cohesion and living together, because these are small quarrels that slowly become wars between populations”, explains the author.

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(Click here for the original French version of this article.)

Question for this article:

Do the arts create a basis for a culture of peace?, What is, or should be, their role in our movement?

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It is for Lacina Téguéra to make its share of contribution to the training and education of the new generation, in a world in perpetual change. “In this difficult context that our country and some countries in the sub-region are going through, it is more than necessary, through books, to promote the culture of peace, living together, tolerance and to instil certain values such as honesty, the value of tradition, respect for elders, the spirit of solidarity and family. This book is also another proof of resilience. The context is certainly difficult, but we will not abdicate and Burkina Faso will remain standing,” he said.

For Lacina Téguéra, his work is written in a simple style, accessible to everyone. It therefore invites readers to make it their own, to read it and to recommend it to loved ones. “One thing is to write, one thing is to be read. I therefore invite readers to purchase the work or to recommend it to friends and colleagues. That’s why I write in simple French, accessible to all with a certain dose of humor… This document is to be read with handkerchiefs to wipe away the tears of laughter or crying,” he said.

Jean Marie Kafando, entrepreneur, sponsor of this dedication ceremony, congratulated the author for the quality of his work and for this big step in the world of writers, by extension of entrepreneurship. “I initially agreed to be his godfather because it is a long friendship, an acquaintance of twenty years. It is a very beautiful work which aims to be educational and which speaks of the problems that Burkina Faso is experiencing today. So it’s my way of bringing my stone to the construction of living together,” he said.

A teacher by training, Lacina Téguéra is currently attached to school and university administration in the Human Resources Management Service of the Provincial Directorate of Preschool, Primary and Non-Formal Education of Bazèga. He is also the correspondent for RTB/Radio and the newspaper Le Pays in the province of Bazèga. The book is available at the unit price of 3,000 F CFA.

Luanda to host third Pan-African Forum for the Culture of Peace


An article from Mundo ao Minuto (translation by CPNN)

Angola will host the 3rd Luanda Biennale – Pan-African Forum for a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence – on the 22nd, 23rd and 24th of November, to address the continent’s themes on violence prevention, it was announced today.

An intersectoral commission, coordinated by the Minister of State for the Social Area, Dalva Ringote, is already preparing the meeting that should take place under the motto “Education, Culture of Peace and African Citizenship as Tools for the Sustainable Development of the Continent”.

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(click here for the original Portuguese version of this article.)

Question related to this article:

The Luanda Biennale: What is its contribution to a culture of peace in Africa?

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The Biennale of Luanda, a meeting resulting from a decision of the 24th Session of the Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the African Union in 2015, will bring together heads of State and Government from the continent and the world, young leaders and international organizations.

The Angolan Government, in a statement, invited financial institutions, the private sector, civil society, scientific, artistic and sports communities to participate in the meeting to address crucial issues on the continent and promote the prevention of violence.

A memorandum of understanding signed on June 20, 2023 between the Angolan Government, through the Luanda Biennale, and the Organization of African, Caribbean and Pacific States (OEACP) was also under analysis at the level of the preparatory body.
The memorandum ensures the active participation of the OEACP and the Member States of the six regions of the organization, supporting the mobilization of resources from partners and actors and identifying joint initiatives that can be integrated into the Bienal de Luanda program.

The previous Bienalle de Luanda took place between 27 and 30 November 2021 (see CPNN December 2021.

Working with religions for social cohesion in Chad


An article by Rimteta Ngarndinon in Tchad Infos (translation by CPNN)

Oxfam and several of its partners are organizing a workshop on June 15 to review and adopt a religious argument for social cohesion in Chad.

In its mandate to contribute to peace, Oxfam, leader of a consortium of NGOs (CARE, International Alert, H.E.D, Tamat, ARDEK, and Help Tchad) has been implementing for more than three months, the project “Strengthening resilience and social cohesion in the border areas of Chad and Niger (RECOSOC)”.

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(Click here for a French version of this article.)

Question related to this article:
How can different faiths work together for understanding and harmony?

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In this context, studies have shown that the misuse of religious precepts is one of the causes of armed conflict and violent extremism. To do this, the project has adopted a religious argument for social cohesion, peaceful coexistence and the culture of peace because all religions advocate peace and all communities aspire to live in peace.

Given that the main religions are the same in Chad and Niger, the project wants through this workshop to make a rereading of the argument of Niger by the Chadian religious leaders before its adoption. Thus, representatives of the Higher Council for Islamic Affairs (CSAI), the Entente of Evangelical Churches and Missions in Chad (EEMET) and the Catholic Church take part in this workshop.

Specifically, says Watadé Nadjidjim, monitoring-evaluation, admissibility and learning coordinator within the project, it will be a question of proofreading this reference document which includes the suras and biblical verses. “At the end, we have to see which verses or suras are related to living together, peace and social cohesion. And we’re going to make good use of it.”

Putin tells Africans: Russia doesn’t reject negotiations with Ukraine


An article by EFE published in Prensa Latina

Russia remains open to negotiations on a resolution to the conflict that began with its invasion of Ukraine, President Vladimir Putin said Saturday (June 17) in a meeting with officials of seven African nations on a peace mission.

“My dear friends, not we, but the leadership of Ukraine, announced that it would not conduct any negotiations. Moreover the president of Ukraine signed a decree prohibiting these negotiations,” the Russian head of state said in St. Petersburg

“We are ready to consider any of your proposals without preconditions,” Putin told Presidents Cyril Ramaphosa of South Africa, Azali Assoumani of the Comoros, Macky Sall of Senegal, and Hakainde Hichilema of Zambia.

The delegation, which also includes Egyptian Prime Minister Mostafa Madbouly and envoys representing the presidents of the Republic of the Congo and Uganda, met Friday in Kyiv with Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy.

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Questions related to this article:
Can the peace movement help stop the war in the Ukraine?

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The purpose of what Ramaphosa described as a “historic” mission was to present to the Ukrainian and Russian governments a 10-point peace plan drawn up by African countries.

“We welcome the balanced approach of African friends to the Ukraine crisis,” Putin told the visitors. “We’re open to constructive dialogue with all those who want peace based on the principles of respect for each other’s interests, as well as justice.”

“This war has to have an end. It must be settled through negotiations and through diplomatic means,” Ramaphosa said during the meeting at Konstantinovsky Palace.

“This war is having a negative impact on the African continent and indeed, on many other countries around the world,” the South African said.

Putin took the opportunity to show the delegation what he said was a draft peace agreement from March 2022.

“I would like to draw your attention to the fact that with (Turkish) President (Recep Tayyip) Erdogan’s assistance, as you know, a string of talks between Russia and Ukraine took place in Turkey so as to work out both the confidence-building measures you mentioned, and to draw up the text of the agreement,” Putin said.

“We did not discuss with the Ukrainian side that this treaty would be classified, but we have never presented it, nor commented on it. This draft agreement was initialed by the head of the Kyiv negotiation team. He put his signature there. Here it is,” the Russian president, holding up a piece of paper.

“It was called treaty of permanent neutrality and security guarantees of Ukraine,” Putin said, adding that the document included 18 articles pertaining to Ukraine’s security.

“Well, after we – as promised – withdrew troops from Kyiv, Kyiv authorities … threw it all away,” the Russian president said.

Caravan of peace in Senegal: The kings of Oussouye and Sine spread the good word


An article by Alioune Badara in Le Quotidien

The Diola and Serer communities want to put culture and joking cousinhood at the service of peace. To implement this vision, Maa Sinig Niokhobaye Diouf Fatou Diène, the King of Sine, visited Maan Sibiloumbaye Diédhiou, the King of Oussouye. As part of the strengthening of ties of brotherhood and cohabitation, the kings of Oussouye and Sine initiated a caravan for peace. Diolas and Sérères took advantage of this visit to deepen the bonds of cousinhood, which constitute a social cement.

This is a trip for a good cause. The Serer and Diola communities want to support the State in promoting the culture of peace in Senegal. Following the establishment of a joint committee in November 2022 in Fimela, located in the Fatick region, to prepare for the visit of the King of Sine to the King of Oussouye, in order to strengthen the ties between the two, a cultural caravan for peace was organized. At the head of the caravan is Maa Sinig Niokhobaye Diouf Fatou Diène, the king of Sine, accompanied by Jaraaf and other members of the royal institution of Sine. They left Diakhao to visit Maan Sibiloumbaye Diedhiou, the King of Oussouye.

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(Click here for the French original of this article)

Question related to this article:


Can traditional leaders serve a culture of peace?

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The caravan was officially started in Fatick before the Governance by the authorities of the region. The royal institution of Sine specifieD that, “The Maa Sinig-Bu Badjum Ayi Cultural Peace Caravan provides an opportunity to harness the vast potential of Senegambia’s cultural and natural heritage, to strengthen social cohesion and the fight against poverty, and to promote sustainable development. at the base. This cultural caravan for peace, designed to benefit the entire Nation, aims to facilitate the synergy between state decisions, local initiatives and community actions, for the achievement of development objectives on a democratic and consensual basis.”

After a warm welcome in Oussouye, the kings of Sine and Oussouye invited the two communities to perpetuate these meetings, but also to look into the future of their communities, the role they can play in the development of the country. . Moreover, in his speech during the official ceremony held at the royal court of Oussouye, Maa Sinig Niokhobaye Diouf Fatou Diène, the king of Sine, returned to the very strong moments with their Diola cousins. “We communed together. It is an old tradition that we have perpetuated between the members of the two communities who are cousins. We found this relationship well maintained by our grandfathers, we have continued to maintain these links today.”

Echoing these words, the King of Oussouye confirmed the words of his peer. He also praised the centuries-old relationship that exists between the two communities. This caravan was also an opportunity for the two communities to show their multiple cultural facets. Through a cultural evening in the public square of Oussouye, Sérères and Diolas unveiled an artistic program that was also a traditional show.

In Diola and Serer mythology, Aguène and Diambogne were two sisters who once took a canoe to cross the Gambia River. But, their boat split in two, causing their separation. According to some historians, this legend begins in Ndakhonga, where the boat left for the high seas before it broke in two. One took the direction of the South, Aguène, the mother of the Diolas. And the other, that of the North, Diambogne, the mother of the Serers. This legend is today the foundation of the pleasant cousinage between Diolas and Sérères, cement of a peaceful cohabitation between the two communities.

Angola Debates The Women’s Role In Building Peace And Democracy


An article from the African Media Agency

The Angolan vice-president, Esperança da Costa, will open this Thursday, May 25, the 1st International Women’s Forum for Peace and Democracy, in an event that will also involve, as speakers, like Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (former President of the Republic of Liberia), Epsy Campbell Barr – former Vice President of Costa Rica (Member of the UNHCR Permanent Forum for People of African Descent) and Zahira Virani (Resident Coordinator of the United Nations System Nations in Angola).

Video of the event

The 1st International Women’s Forum for Peace and Democracy, which takes place over two days (May 25th and 26th, at the Hotel Intercontinental Miramar), is an event that focuses on women’s struggle for equality, emancipation, continental development for Peace and Democracy, part of the Luanda Biennial – Pan-African Forum for the Culture of Peace and Non-Violence, which is a joint initiative between the Government of Angola, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ( UNESCO) and the African Union (AU).

Operatively coordinated by the Minister of State for Social Action, Dalva Ringote Allen, the 1st International Women’s Forum for Peace and Democracy, which takes place under the theme “Technological Innovation and Education for the Achievement of Gender Equality” and with the motto “Innovation Technology as a Tool for Achieving Food Security Combating Drought on the African Continent”, aims to:

* Reaffirm and strengthen political commitment to action on gender equality, the empowerment of women and girls and their human rights, ensuring high-level engagement,

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(Click here for information in Portuguese)

Question for this article

Can the women of Africa lead the continent to peace?

The Luanda Biennale: What is its contribution to a culture of peace in Africa?

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* Foment discussion events through round tables, high-level interactive dialogues, to exchange experiences, lessons learned and good practices.
* Debate on the status of gender equality on the African continent, identifying goals and achievements achieved, and challenges to fill existing gaps

The 1st International Women’s Forum for Peace and Democracy also has the following specific objectives:

* Identify areas of convergence within the national chapters of the Bienal de Luanda and expand the position of groups of young women leaders at national level,

* Establish regional, continental and international cooperation protocols,

* Propose concrete actions for the qualification of young women, promoting opportunities for access to the labor market.

In order to materialize these objectives, five thematic panels were programmed, globally, for the two days of work, namely “The challenges of globalization in the process of gender empowerment”, “Technological innovation and education to achieve gender equality” , “Formalization as a mechanism for social and financial inclusion”, “Challenges of food security and climate change on the African continent” and “The role of women in consolidating peace and preventing conflicts”.

The program of the 1st International Women’s Forum for Peace and Democracy includes two master classes in the conference auditorium of the Ministry of Mineral Resources, Oil and Gas, with the themes “Challenges of Food Security and Climate Change on the African Continent”, by Papa Abdoulaye Seck (former Minister of Agriculture and Rural Equipment and Ambassador of Senegal to Italy) and “Financing for Development in Africa Calls for a Paradigm Change: The Driving Role of Domestic Resources”, by Cristina Isabel Lopes Duarte – Adviser to the Secretary General of UN for Africa.

The 1st International Women’s Forum for Peace and Democracy is aimed at Women Leaders of African Regional Organizations, Women Leaders, Heads of Government and members of the PALOPS, CPLP and OEACP. International and National Organizations, Representatives of Diplomatic Missions, Representatives of public sector entities, Public and private companies and Private sector entities.

Women must play a larger role in peace building and resolving conflicts –African Development Bank chief


An article from the African Development Bank (reprinted as non-commercial use)

Women’s proven role in conflict resolution makes the unique position of First Ladies even more important as agents for resolving conflicts in Africa.

“Men make wars, women make peace. Women must therefore be included in peace making, peace building, conflict resolution, and reconstruction efforts.” African Development Bank President told guests at the inauguration of the African First Ladies Peace Mission (AFLPM) state-of-the-art headquarters in Abuja heard on Tuesday.

“There can be no development without peace and security,” said Dr Adesina in a speech delivered on his behalf by the African Development Bank’s Director General for Nigeria, Lamin Barrow.

Nigeria’s first lady and outgoing chair of the African First Ladies Peace Mission, Aisha Buhari, emphasised the significance of women’s role  in conflict resolution.

“As women leaders and mothers, our role in peace and security is to continue to say no to the culture and structures of violence that make people accept and unleash violence on innocent victims, the majority of whom are women and children,” she said.

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Questions for this article

Can the women of Africa lead the continent to peace?

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She told the gathering that the African First Ladies Peace Mission has received the endorsement and support of partners led by the African Union. AFLPM has also signed a memorandum of understanding with the African Union to cooperate on peacebuilding, Buhari said.

The African Development Bank has partnered with the African Union to develop security-indexed investment bonds to help mobilise funding to address the root causes of political instability, protect businesses and livelihoods, and rebuild infrastructure in conflict-affected areas.

The bank is also providing support to vulnerable and internally displaced women living in refugee camps in the Sahel region.

“Nothing works without peace and security,” Adesina said, adding his voice to the African Union’s call to ‘silence the guns.’  “Many parts of Africa face major security challenges from conflict and war. Today, 85% of Africans live in or near a country in conflict.”

Women and children are disproportionately affected by wars, he said, adding that sexual violence, abductions, forced conscription and trafficking in women must end.

“Women’s voices must never be silenced,” Adesina added.

The Bank chief described African first ladies as critical to the efforts of African leaders and the African Union to ensure a peaceful and secure Africa by 2063.

“Your focus on addressing violence, promoting the role of women, fostering a culture of peace, and reducing conflict, are truly commendable,” Adesina said. “The African Development Bank stands ready to support your efforts and we look forward to a strong partnership with your organisation.”

He also stressed the importance of a collective responsibility to unite in order to resolve conflicts, break cycles of violence and address fragility.

A song for peace


A request received by email at CPNN

Dear CPNN,

I am humbly reaching out to you and your esteemed partners for a collaboration with your organisation to campaign for peace and for women empowerment and children safety using my song titled Peace World Need, music released early this year.

Frame from video of the song

It’s been a desire to reach out far calling on your organisation with proposal.

In this, I am humbly looking at song put on the airwaves to have message out to the people. It is often the case that the more a message is communicated to people, it impacts on their thinking to influence subsequent decisions and to a larger extent subsequent actions of the people.


We are all one people
One nation
Let us unite

Many language
Varying beliefs
But we are all one

Hurt no woman
Helping children

We need one another
For a better world

Save a life, save a life
Loving one another
As much as we can
Save a life, save a life
No other way to our peace.

Question for this article:

What place does music have in the peace movement?


Daniel AYISI is a Ghanaian in Ghana coming from the Eastern region for the father side and from the Ashanti region the mother side currently living in Kumasi, the city in Ashanti Region.

Music has been a dual occupation alongside his accountancy profession being a graduate in Business Administration 
Born on the 1st of December, he recalls some instance tracing when and how he came up with music. At the primary school in the boarding house he recalls he was made the entertainment prefect. He recalls he was playing the konka drum for songs performed by colleagues during entertainment but do not know when he learnt playing this local drum. At the youthful age, he recalls he wrote and composed a song for the youth church choir, a song the choir leader commented was interesting though unused.

Music composition has been carried out through out his life partially realizing most of his songs in different genres at amazon music years ago. It was from 2018 he took up music occupation for a career fully releasing some singles and an EP and also having a video on the you tube EP titled, Thanksgiving, same title for music video.


Name of Artist : Daniel AYISI
Artist Name: Daniel AYISI
Country of Origin: Ghana
Music Status: Independent Music Artist- Composer, Songwriter, Singer, Producer.
Copyright Affiliation: CMMRA
Other Contacts: WhatsApp Mobile Phone: +233 543 050 667.

Promotion of the Culture of Peace: Salimane Karimou Launches the Project “Youth for Peace in Northern Benin”


An article from Matin Libre (translation by CPNN)

The Minister of Preschool and Primary Education, Salimane Karimou, presided, this Thursday, April 27, 2023 at the Golden Tulip in Cotonou, over the official launch of the project “Youth for Peace in Northern Benin”. Funded by the European Union and implemented by UNICEF Benin in collaboration with the government, this project aims to promote a culture of peace and strengthen the resilience of adolescents and young people in northern Benin by education and vocational training.

During the ceremony that served as a springboard for the official launch of this project, several speeches were made. In the presence of all the parties concerned, the Representative of UNICEF Benin, Djanabou Mahondé, began by thanking all the structures that made possible this tripartite partnership in favor of children, adolescents and young people in the North.

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(click here for the French original of this article)

Question for this article:

What is the relation between peace and education?

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She mentioned that”The project, which will be implemented until June 2024 for a value of approximately 2.5 million US dollars, or 1.5 billion CFA francs, places particular emphasis on children out of school, children in Koranic schools, but also girls, and young people looking for alternative education or training, who all find themselves in situations of vulnerability that expose them to risks, but also deprive them of their fundamental rights. Indeed, the launch of this project responds to an important need to work with and for young people, in order to make them agents of positive change and ambassadors of peace, while Benin, like other coastal countries of the sub-region, has been facing the consequences of the Sahel crisis in the northern border areas for several months.”

Following her, Sylvia Hartlief, Ambassador of the European Union in Benin praised the government and particularly the Minister Salimane Karimou for the efforts made in consolidating education in the border departments. “The objective is to provide Beninese children and adolescents with solid educational achievements and essential skills to better integrate into a constantly changing socio-economic environment, and to promote the role of children and young people in the safeguarding peace and social cohesion in the country. An objective of which we all measure the importance and the urgency, when we know that nearly two million children are out of school in Benin, more than half of them in the 4 departments of the North (Alibori, Atacora, Borgou and Donga). The European Union is proud to support you, to accompany you, in partnership with Unicef, whose legitimacy and quality of support in the service of education no longer need to be demonstrated.”

Speaking of this project, the Minister, Leader of the Ministers of Education informs that it will take place in the department of Atacora in Cobly, Kerou, Materi, Natitingou; in the department of Alibori in Banikoara, in Karimama and in the department of Donga in Ouaké. This program, he said, responds perfectly to the ambition of the government to ensure continuous improvement of access to basic social services and social protection. “Peace education aims to combat a culture of war by promoting a culture of peace. It calls into question the principle according to which violence is innate in humans and aims to put students at the center, able to resolve conflicts without violence, “he said, while reassuring himself that this program will enable impacted children, adolescents and young people to become responsible, peace-loving citizens. He finally proceeded to the official installation of the committee to lead this project.

Kenya: Women lead efforts to restore peace in the troubled North


An article by Bakari Ang’ela in The Saturday Standard

Women from the troubled parts of North Rift have established networks and platforms in their push to spearhead peace-building efforts in areas ravaged by banditry.

The women drawn from Turkana, West Pokot and Marakwet communities have kicked-off talks with their Ethiopian and Ugandan counterparts to take leading roles in the restoration of peace in the North.

Women groups drawn from Turkana, West Pokot and Marakwet communities in the troubled North Rift launch a peace-building caravan.[Bakari Ang’ela, Standard]

Maendeleo ya Wanawake and civil society groups championing women empowerment in Turkana County said rural women if supported, can fully participate in conflict prevention and resolution.

The women have been holding meetings in areas such as Kibish, West Pokot-Turkana, and Kenya-Uganda borders and other border areas near the vast region hit by attacks.

According to Kerio Valley peace icon and former Gender Chief Administrative Secretary (CAS) Linah Kilimo, the women groups can influence a change of attitude among suspected bandits.

“We had started meeting women from troubled areas in a bid to empower them to champion peace, but the initiative was interrupted. I am encouraging the government to support women in their push to champion peace,” said Kilimo.

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Questions for this article

Can the women of Africa lead the continent to peace?

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Baringo County resident Maureen Lemashepe, on the other hand, asked Interior Cabinet Secretary Kithure Kindiki to embark on women-led peace talks after the conclusion of the ongoing operation.

A message echoed by Nawi Lopem from Kang’aten village in Ethiopia who lauded meetings between Turkana and Ethiopia’s Nyangatom women as a step forward towards the achievement of cohesion and lasting peace.

“Whenever there is insecurity, women and girls can’t even access food commodities from the neighbouring trading centres because they are targets. Women can’t even get out of the areas they run to seek refuge in, to get sanitary pads. Attacks along the border have dehumanized women, and it is their time to broker peace,” said Ms Lopem

For Turkana County Maendeleo ya Wanawake chairperson Jacinta Epeyon, the involvement of women in peace efforts was the missing link in the struggle to attain cohesion in the troubled North.

“Sustained attacks – especially on Turkana community by bandits from Baringo and Samburu counties, and by Toposa from South Sudan, Nyangatom from Ethiopia and Dodoth and Jie from Uganda – have seen women killed, others widowed and children left orphans. We are able to talk to our husbands and sons on the importance of peace and through frequent cross-border dialogues, our impact will be felt,” said Epeyon.

Ms Epeyon said that in remote villages such as Kokuro, Kibish, Kamuge, Napak and Napeitom, women and girls cannot easily access water and sanitary towels for their hygiene because of insecure roads leading to shopping centres and water points.

Project officer Ms Lilian Bwire said women in Turkana West sub-county along the Uganda border were now getting an opportunity for their voices to be heard.

“Insecurity has denied their children an opportunity to access basic education as there are no early childhood development and education centres. During cross-border peace dialogues among women, they are advocating lasting peace so that schools, hospitals, markets and roads are constructed,” said Ms Bwire.

World Vision and other organizations such as the UN have invested in women empowerment projects in the area but insecurity challenges have persisted.

“With peace, girls in schools such as Kibish Primary will learn in a favourable environment and compete equally with boys. As part of the celebration, we donated sanitary towels to them so that they are hygienically comfortable in class,” said Turkana Governor’s spouse, Lilian Ekamais.