‘End Fossil Fuels’ Protests Kick Off Worldwide Ahead of UN Climate Ambition Summit


An article by Jessica Corbett from Common Dreams (licensed under Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)

Hundreds of demonstrations around the world demanding “rapid, just, and equitable phaseout from fossil fuels in favor of sustainable renewables” began Friday ahead of United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres’ Climate Ambition Summit in New York City next week.

The Fridays for Future movement and other activists march in Berlin, Germany on September 15, 2023. (Photo: Odd Andersen/AFP via Getty Images)

“From Pacific nations, heavily affected by sea-level rise and storms, through Mumbai to Manila, London to Nairobi, over 650 actions are planned in 60 countries, culminating in a march in New York City on September 17,” according to protest organizers.

The Global Fight to End Fossil Fuels “opposes the fossil fuel industry, which has made obscene profits at the expense of the world’s people, biodiversity, and a safe and livable climate,” added organizers, who expect millions to join the protests over the coming days. “It calls on governments and companies to immediately end fossil fuel expansion and subsidies.”

Demonstrators, journalists, and supporters shared footage from Friday’s actions on social media with the hashtag #EndFossilFuels.

Protest in Pakistan

Protest in Philippines

The actions come amid the hottest  summer on record and as experts continue to sound the alarm over unwavering environmental destruction, especially by the fossil fuel industry and its political and financial backers.

International scientists revealed  this week that six of nine barriers that ensure Earth is a “safe operating space for humanity” have been breached, which followed recent findings  that greenhouse gas concentrations, global sea level, and ocean heat content hit record highs last year.

Climate chaos—fueled by oil and gas giants that have spent decades lying about their planet-heating pollution along with rich governments and institutions that continue to break their promises and pump billions of dollars into the fossil fuel industry—is already killing people. The death toll from flooding in Libya this week has climbed to 11,300.

Protest in Uganda

Protest in Berlin

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Question for this article:

Despite the vested interests of companies and governments, Can we make progress toward sustainable development?

Are we seeing the dawn of a global youth movement?

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“The world is at a tipping point,” said Tyrone Scott of the War on Want and the Climate Justice Coalition in the United Kingdom ahead of protests this weekend. “Climate catastrophe is already devastating the lives and livelihoods of people across the world and primarily those in the Global South, who are least responsible for causing it.”

“We must uproot the systems of exploitation and oppression which keep the majority of the world’s population in poverty while lining the pockets of corporates and rich shareholders. This is a watershed moment. How we respond will determine how the world is shaped for generations,” Scott stressed. “We demand an end to fossil fuels. We demand a fast and fair transition. We demand climate justice.”

Protest in Manchester, UK

Protest in Stockholm

Tens of thousands of activists from across the United States are expected to join the March to End Fossil Fuels in New York City on Sunday. Marchers—backed by hundreds of organizations and scientists—have four key demands for President Joe Biden:

° Stop federal approval for new fossil fuel projects and repeal permits for climate bombs like the Willow project  and the Mountain Valley Pipeline;

° Phase out fossil drilling on our public lands and waters;

° Declare a climate emergency to halt fossil fuel exports and investments abroad, and turbocharge the buildout of more just, resilient distributed energy (like rooftop and community solar); and

° Provide a just transition to a renewable energy future that generates millions of jobs while supporting workers’ and community rights, job security, and employment equity.

“Despite his numerous and explicit pledges to the contrary, President Biden has turned out to be a strong supporter of fossil fuels,” Food & Water Watch  Northeast region director Alex Beauchamp, an organizer of the NYC march, said in a statement Friday.

“With each passing day, Biden’s failure to lead on clean energy drives the planet deeper into the abyss of irrevocable climate chaos,” he added. “We’re marching to send a message that true climate leadership means halting new oil and gas drilling and fracking, and rejecting new fossil fuel infrastructure like pipelines and export terminals—beginning now.”

Betamia Coronel, senior national organizer for climate justice at the Center for Popular Democracy, highlighted  in a Friday opinion piece for Common Dreams that “BIPOC communities have always lived at the intersection of wealth disparity and the climate crisis,” and “it is Black, Indigenous, immigrant, working-class people of color who have been leading the efforts in the lead up to this historic march in NYC.”

Dozens of actors, activists, and climate leaders—including Bill McKibben, Blair Imani, Cornel West, Jameela Jamil, Jane Fonda, Rev. Lennox Yearwood Jr., Mark Ruffalo, Naomi Klein, Rosario Dawson, Rep. Rashida Tlaib (D-Mich.), Rebecca Solnit, and Vanessa Nakate—joined more than 700 groups on Friday in sending a pre-march letter to the U.S. president.

“The U.S. is the top global oil and gas producer and the largest historic greenhouse gas emitter. It is imperative that the U.S. change course and become a true global climate leader by ending the extraction and use of fossil fuels,” they wrote, urging Biden to commit to phasing out fossil fuels at the U.N. summit on September 20. “The world is watching.”

Biden has also faced mounting pressure to declare a climate emergency this year, as the United States has endured a record-setting number of billion-dollar disasters, from a deadly fire in Hawaii to Hurricane Idalia. Since last week, eight campaigners have been arrested outside the White House for a series of protests demanding a climate emergency declaration and other executive action to end the era of fossil fuels.

Protest in Standing Rock, USA

Organizers planned to continue the nonviolent civil disobedience campaign in Washington, D.C. on Friday, and warned that “each day Biden delays in taking this step is precious time lost to save lives and secure a livable future for humankind and countless other species.”

Africa Climate Summit Issues Nairobi Declaration


An article by Abayomi Azikiwe (editor of Pan-African News Wire) published by the Transcend Media Service

Despite statements of intent, western industrialized countries have not yet provided the resources needed for the transition to renewable energy production which benefits the majority of people on the continent

Nairobi, Kenya, the commercial center for the East Africa region, hosted the Africa Climate Summit which attracted thousands of delegates, investors and observers to discuss the worsening plight of the continent as it relates to environmental degradation.

Head of states and delegates pose for a group photo, during the official opening of the Africa Climate Summit at the Kenyatta International Convention Centre in Nairobi, Kenya, Monday, Sept. 4, 2023.(AP Photo/Khalil Senosi)

The meeting was scheduled from September 4-8 at the Kenyatta International Convention Center (KICC) where registered delegates from governments and non-governmental organizations articulated their views on what is needed in the present period to avert an even larger climate disaster for Africa’s 1.3 billion people.

This summit was held under the theme, “Africa Climate Summit 2023: Driving Green Growth & Climate Finance Solutions for Africa and the World.” The governmental leaders met for three days while the entire week was dedicated to the current situation and potential solutions.

Outside the ACS, there were thousands more representing coalitions, traditional communities and mass groupings, many of which were critical of the gathering and the way in which western governments, multi-national corporations and international financial institutions are seeking to dominate the dialogue on Africa climate issues and economic development. A host of delegates were present from the United States and the European Union (EU) making pledges to assist the AU member-states in halting the impact of greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants.

In the language for the summit overview, it states that:

“The inaugural Africa Climate Summit, championed by HE President [William] Ruto, aims to address the increasing exposure to climate change and its associated costs, both globally and particularly in Africa. With the expectation of escalating climate crises in terms of frequency and intensity, urgent action is required to mitigate these challenges. The Summit will serve as a platform to inform, frame, and influence commitments, pledges, and outcomes, ultimately leading to the development of the Nairobi Declaration.”

However, the previous commitments made by western states and multinational corporations have not yet been honored. The purpose of the ACS 2023 was to reach a consensus among African governments on a program to be taken to the United Nations Climate Summit (COP28) which will be held in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in December.

The adoption of the Nairobi Declaration was designed to position the AU member-states in their negotiations within the broader international community. Nonetheless, it remains to be seen how the AU can either convince or force the industrialized capitalist states to provide the necessary reforms that will turn the tide towards green and sustainable energy.

During the ACS it was acknowledged by the AU member-states and some corporations that Africa is one of the least responsible regions for the rise in global warming. Consequently, the continent requires assistance in preventing further extreme weather events, droughts and the subsequent food deficits which are plaguing various regions of East Africa.

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Question for this article:

Can the African Union help bring a culture of peace to Africa?

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An article published  in the French newspaper Le Monde on the ACS noted:

“The declaration called for ‘concrete action’ on reforms that lead to ‘a new financing architecture that is responsive to Africa’s needs’, including debt restructuring and relief.

Ruto said it was time to overhaul global financial systems that ‘perpetually place African nations on the backfoot. We demand a fair playing ground for our countries to access the investment needed to unlock the potential and translate it into opportunities,’ he said. Leaders also pressed the world’s wealthy polluters to honor their pledges, including to provide $100 billion a year for clean energy and to help them brace for climate disasters.”

Defeating Climate Change Requires a Struggle Against the Current World Order

As long as the multinational corporations and banks can earn enormous profits under the existing economic system, the realization of change will require organized pressure from the AU member-states and their constituencies. This ACS gathering was not the first time that these demands have been put forward to the leading imperialist states.

When Republic of South Africa President Cyril Ramaphosa paid a state visit to the U.S. nearly one year ago, he emphasized that his country along with others on the continent would need billions of dollars to address the goals set by the annual United Nations Climate Summit. Every year, the U.S., U.K. and the EU are able to veto significant resolutions at the COP meetings which would place definite responsibilities on the imperialist states.

During 2022, when the COP27 Summit was held in Egypt, a host of promises were made by the imperialist states which have yet to be fulfilled. Yet one year later, these same economic and political interests continue to pretend that they will make amends for their industrial and agricultural policies which are the main contributors to the rise in pollutants.

The New York Times wrote a report  on the ACS pointing out that there are serious questions being raised by people in Kenya about the effectiveness of the Nairobi Declaration:

“Outside the halls of the convention center, Kenyans were asking tougher questions about whom the conference and its lofty goals really served. ‘The energy discussion masks our economic crisis,’ said Mordecai Ogada, an author and a leading Kenyan voice on environmental issues. ‘Yes, we get most of our electricity from renewables. But we pay foreign companies to generate that power exorbitantly in foreign currency,’ he said. ‘Manufacturing has become expensive, which drives inflation. As far as the lives of Kenyans are concerned, the source of energy is completely immaterial.’”

In Kenya over recent months, the government of President Ruto has lifted fuel subsidies and raised taxes on essential goods. The hardships caused by these measures sparked demonstrations which were organized by the political opposition in the country. In real terms, the Kenyan national currency has lost one-third of its value over the last two years.

The overall global crisis prompted by the COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences are largely to blame for the sharp rise in prices. Therefore, to insulate the people of Africa from external shocks, there must be a radical shift in the international division of labor and economic power which has reinforced the dependency inherited from the colonial system.

Africa News quoted a participant  in the demonstrations involving thousands outside the ACS 2023 meeting. This activist called Babawale from the Friends of the Earth Africa said:

“We are here to demand that Africa’s energy system must be de-colonized, it must be brought out from the hands of the culprits, it is time for the African people to stand together and make a demand, that what we need now is systems change, not climate change, what we need now is that Africa’s energy systemic must be de-colonized. It should be put in the hands of people, this is not the time that we should promote carbon markets it is not going to put to an end the different climate crisis that Africa is facing.”

During the demonstrations by civil society and mass organizations surrounding the Kenyatta International Convention Center, people carried banners which read: “Stop the neo-colonial scramble for oil and gas in Africa.” In Kenya alone, the government would need approximately $US62 billion to address the necessity of reducing emissions which contribute to climate change.

AU member-states overall would require an estimated $US290 billion to $US440 billion to achieve the same objectives. These resources will not be given by the imperialist states absent of a protracted campaign for climate justice and a sweeping redistribution of wealth on a global scale.

Indigenous trade unionists from around the world call for more inclusion and solidarity: “We are not just there to sing the songs and do the opening prayer”


An article from Equal Times (published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International licence)

More than 476 million people worldwide (6.2 per cent of humanity) belong to Indigenous peoples, most of whom live alongside the societies that colonised their ancient lands hundreds of years ago. In the 21st century, after a long journey during which they were not always able to survive colonial oppression without losing their identity, language or part of their culture, Indigenous peoples have won significant gains in various regions of the world but they continue to face challenges such as discrimination and limited opportunities, making it very difficult for them to enjoy fair labour market integration. Four out of five Indigenous workers earn a living from informal employment, and the remainder most often work in highly precarious sectors, without any form of social protection, where they are exposed to all kinds of rights abuses.

To mark the International Day of the World’s Indigenous Peoples, established by the United Nations in 1982, and to coincide with the call made by the ITUC for governments around the world to sign up to the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention (C169) of the International Labour Organization (ILO) – which, despite being launched in 1989, has only been ratified by 24 countriesEqual Times interviewed three Indigenous trade union leaders from three continents.

 Māori, Sami and Mapuche trade union leaders talk to Equal Times. From left to right: Laures Park (New Zealand), David Acuña (Chile) and Sissel Skoghaug (Norway). (Equal Times/Composition by Fátima Donaire)

David Acuña Millahueique, the president of CUT Chile, the main trade union organisation in his country, speaks to us from the Americas. Acuña, who became the first leader of Mapuche origin to head the union a year ago, is currently involved in the historic process of developing a new constitution for Chile and the CUT is working to ensure that it enshrines freedom of association and decent work as fundamental rights in a country where the current constitution, in force since the military dictatorship (1973-1990), still does not provide for labour rights. Sissel Skoghaug, vice president of Norway’s LO union confederation for the past decade and a representative of the Sami people, the ancient nomadic ethnic group of the Arctic and the only Indigenous people left on the continent, joins us from Europe. And from Oceania, we speak to Laures Park, who holds the position of Matua Takawaenga (Māori for “chief mediator”) with the New Zealand teachers’ union NZEI Te Riu Roa, where she is not only the main focal point for all matters relating to the Indigenous people of the island nation, but is also the acting union leader when the national secretary is absent, which is also seen as a symbolic gain for the Māori.

What is the current situation of the First Nation peoples in your country, in terms of social and labour integration or discrimination?

LAURES PARK (L.P.): In New Zealand there is still discrimination. There are lots of concerns, but there’s lots of integration as well. It depends on socioeconomic and geographical conditions. The Māori, who are about 12 per cent of the national population, tend to fill the lower paid labour-intensive jobs. They tend to be cleaners, rubbish collectors and landscape gardeners – those kinds of jobs. And yes, there are also a lot of Māori that move to the city and get jobs in the public service, but you have to move to get that kind of work. Poverty-wise, that’s probably very high for Indigenous people in New Zealand, and that’s because of poor access to education where they live, as well as lack of employment.

SISSEL SKOGHAUG (S.S.): So much injustice has been done to the Sami people. The authorities almost managed to rob an entire people of their identity and their language. As the Truth and Reconciliation Commission recently concluded, this also applies to the Kven people and the Forest Finns. [But] especially in Norway and parts of Sweden, the Sami culture has been experiencing a very strong renaissance over the last four decades. Young people, and also quite a few in my generation, are taking back the heritage that was lost two or three generations back.

DAVID ACUÑA MILLAHUEIQUE (D.A.M.): The labour situation of people of Indigenous origin comes from the forced integration of the Indigenous society into the dominant society of the colonisers. Before reaching the situation we have now, there have even been periods of slavery, which initially involved working for a very basic income as day labourers, apprentice carpenters, bricklayers or bakers, for example. Many of those who migrated from rural to urban areas worked in these trades, while the majority of the Indigenous women worked as domestic and care workers. Today, a large percentage of the new generations have achieved access to various levels of formal education, so we have moved on from the worker who formerly did not know how to read or write to the literate workers of today, enabling a minimal level of social mobility in some cases.

What about the acknowledgment and respect for First Nation cultures, languages and rights, and their integration in the work environment?

S.S.: Nowadays, in Norway we have the Sami Parliament (Samediggi), established in 1989. That is the representative body of the Sami people in the country, and it promotes political initiatives and has authority on a number of issues. At the same time, the main Sami language is also an official language in Norway. Much more has been achieved since assimilation and discrimination was the official order of the day.

L.P.: In New Zealand it goes from one extreme to the other. There is a whole sector of the population that doesn’t even know about it or doesn’t care, because Māori don’t have anything to do with their lives. But there is also another part of the population that is learning the language and participating in the customs, and is very much part of all the things that happen in the education system [where there are a number of selected schools where the Māori language is taught to everyone since early childhood].

There is a whole generation of Māori who only speak Māori, and their families only speak Māori when they are out and about, and this can cause a bit of stress with other people, mainly white people. But on the other side, when we’re downtown, other people are delighted to hear Māori being spoken out in the community. So it varies. You get some people that see it as: “Oh, God, you’re trying to hide something from us,” and other people who think that’s just lovely to hear it. And we have a Māori television channel, and the number of non-Māori who watch it is just incredible. So, as I say, [the situation] varies.

D.A.M.: In Chile, the process of Indigenous integration has been strongly marked by social discrimination and also, in many cases, employment and racial discrimination, which have led to irreparable cultural losses, such as the use of our own mother tongue, especially as of the third generation [of Mapuche people who settled in the cities in the mid-twentieth century]. We were migrants in our own land, because we had to go to the more developed cities, and we lost everything from our language to our customs with these migration and integration processes.

The first generations of Indigenous migrants had to adjust to a new way of life, and of course, they had to behave like Chileans, and ended up “half-Chileanised”, often trying to hide or disguise their Mapuche ancestry, and little by little this began to take hold, to the extent that people even avoided using their own language and customs, all in an attempt to adopt the traits of a society that was not our own and steadily adapt to it. It has only been as of the fourth generation, to which I belong, that we began to see a gradual process of self-identification with our origins. Over the last five or six years, there has also been a reclaiming of the Mapuche flag itself, which became visible in 2019 with the social uprising, during which one of the most popular and most visible symbols in the protests was the Mapuche flag. There was almost a commercial boom, the Mapuche flag was suddenly selling so well. That showed that we were recognising an identity that we had lost until then.

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(Click here for the French version of this article, or here for the Spanish version .)

Question(s) related to this article:
The right to form and join trade unions, Is it being respected?

Indigenous peoples, Are they the true guardians of nature?

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Has your country ratified the ILO’s Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention (C169), from 1989? How does that affect the current First Nation peoples’ life in the country? How important is C169 for your people?

S.S.: In 1990, Norway was the first country to ratify the ILO’s Convention 169. I am proud of LO Norway’s role in making ILO 169 happen, and making it happen first in our own country. Alongside the Constitution and the Sami Act, ILO’s Convention 169 is one of the central pillars of the Norwegian Sami policy. ILO 169 is a monument to the collective spirit of cooperation that characterised Norway at the start of the 1990s. This collective spirit also carried the majority population through a rough period of unemployment and financial and political turmoil.

L.P.: In New Zealand the government has not ratified it, and their explanation is that our new laws need to comply with a lot of other previous laws before they ratify it. That doesn’t change things for us. If we want to make a point, we will still use the C169 and it still holds weight. In some ways, [the fact that New Zealand hasn’t ratified C169] probably supports our argument.

D.A.M.: Yes, Chile ratified it in 2008. By doing so, the state of Chile committed to a state policy of recognition for Indigenous peoples and pledged to establish policies of recognition and respect for this section of society. When national policies are developed that may affect the social, cultural, political and environmental conditions in which Indigenous communities live, we always end up with a consultation. That’s as far as we have got for now, but it is an important achievement, because it is a tool that gives Indigenous communities a voice in what directly impacts on them, and that’s something we didn’t have before.

Why did you join a union, what difficulties did you find in your working environment and in the unions themselves, just for being Indigenous?

L.P.: I joined when I was a teacher. Many years ago, we were talking about how to encourage Māori people to become interested in trade unions. That’s when it became a lot more relevant for me. And since then, that’s been the push – to make sure that unions work for Māori.

We have a saying, that was said by a very old tipuna [ancestor]: “There is but one eye of the needle through which all threads must pass: the white, the red, the black.” For our union, that actually is exactly the sentiment that we think people should embrace, because only by joining together and going in the same direction can we make things work. Otherwise, we’re pulling against each other.

D.A.M.: I’ve been working since I was 17; I had to support my family from a very young age and I’ve always been closely linked to work. When I was getting to know the trade union world, one day a union came to look for representatives at the supermarket where I was working, and there were two colleagues who put themselves forward as union reps. Three could be elected, and these guys had no class consciousness, let’s say, they were not very pro-worker, they were more pro-management, they were very close to the company. So, I said, “No, if we want to fight for labour rights, we need to have agreements with the company, but also disagreements and to fight for the rights we believe in.” It was time, a decision, to say: “Either I keep watching everything stay the same, or I make some kind of change,” and I chose to make a change, with all the sacrifices this also entails.

Given the leadership position that you have reached in your organisation, what does that symbolise for you and the continued struggle for Indigenous rights?

D.A.M.: It is a source of pride for me and my family. My first May Day as president was a personal milestone for me. That day, I acknowledged my identity, I said: “I am a retail worker, I am Mapuche and I come from an Indigenous community in Lleulleu, in the Los Ríos region.” More than a trade union leader, I see myself as a worker and, today, I also strongly recognise my historical legacy: that my mother was a migrant from the south of Chile to the capital, and that we lost our language, we lost part of our culture, but we did not lose our attachment to the territory. Recognising this is very important to me, because I feel proud to be representing, in this role, a people as combative as the Mapuche people were and are today in their territorial claim, which is still pending.

S.S: I have in later years discovered that my own family lost most of our Sami and Kven identity, including the language, as a result of the many decades of Norwegianisation policy. But we are taking back our heritage, with my daughter and son leading the way with language studies and much more. In my public appearances, I am very proud to be wearing the gakti (Sami traditional dress), which I recently had made. I feel that this process in itself is a victory over the injustice that was done.

How can the trade unions better help the Indigenous and First Nation peoples reach real integration in the working world?

D.A.M.: With solidarity and respect. Respect for identity, for beliefs, but also solidarity, inclusion within the world of work.

S.S.: We will look into what we in LO Norway can do to help combat racism, like we have done in the workplace. So far, in the working world, LO Norway has been a strong advocate for the legislation against discrimination now in place in Norway. Thanks to that, nowadays employees and job applicants enjoy equal opportunities, regardless of their ethnicity, religion, sex or responsibilities as caretakers. All Norwegian employers are obliged to work actively, in a targeted way and systematically, to promote equality and prevent discrimination in the workplace, according to the Equality and Anti-Discrimination Act. This employer activity duty is a preventative work that employers are expected to do before incidents of discrimination occur.

L.P.: Trade unions could change themselves internally and employ more Indigenous people in their organisations. And they shouldn’t be afraid to promote these things amongst the affiliates; at the moment it is seen a little bit as window dressing. But we all belong to this country, so we all should be doing the same thing across the board, not just letting people maybe be inclusive or maybe just say, and this is me being rude: “Go over there and play with your marbles while we get on with the real work over here”. Trade unions need to be more inclusive and more promotional about First Nations, so that we are not just there to sing the songs and do the opening prayer.

How can First Nation peoples contribute, with their particular sensibilities, culture and experiences, to the current global debates about just transition, social justice, labour and human rights and the democratic health of our societies?

D.A.M.: In Chile, the Indigenous peoples come from a culture of struggle that calls for many rights that were taken from them: the right to land is one of their main demands, but there are also the ancestral cultures, especially ancestral medicine, which now forms part of the entry of Mapuche culture into society in a way that was inconceivable before, because there has been, over the last 15 or 20 years, a cultural shift that has allowed the culture of the Indigenous peoples to re-emerge. Today almost every district has a Mapuche ruca, a ceremonial centre for gastronomy, culture and traditional medicine, such that, beyond a flag and a combative tradition, what is also emerging is an ancestral culture that speaks of solidarity, inclusion and participation, respect for elders and for one’s own body.

S.S.: I think we need to go back to that spirit of cooperation that characterised Norway at the start of the 1990s. We live again in a time of crisis and a lot is at risk. The polarisation we see both in the world and in our part of it gives room for forces that do not wish neither minorities, nor majorities or democracies well. Rights that have been won will not automatically be there forever. The fight is never over. We know all about this in the labour movement.

L.P.: When I think about just transition, and particularly climate change as well, I think Indigenous people or First Nations people have a lot to offer. But the powers that be don’t ask. For example, when you think about areas that are now suffering from drought and lack of water and so on, Indigenous people in Australia have lived like that for years. So, how come people don’t talk to them? About how you survive in those situations? And what is it that you bring to the table about those conversations? There are ways of doing things wisely, sustainably, that Indigenous people have always done, that they will continue to do. There’s a whole lot of that knowledge that First Nations hold and probably just use it like the everyday life common sense that it is for them. If anybody bothered to investigate or talk about it, I think First Nations have a lot to offer, but one: do they have a voice? And two: do people listen to what they have to say?

Bill McKibben: Extraordinary Quantities of Human Tragedy Are in Motion


An article from Common Dreams (reprinted according to terms of Creative Commons (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0) license)

I didn’t expect to love Yellowknife, the capital of Canada’s Northwest Territories—a lot of the towns of the far north always seem hunkered down to me, a collection of Quonset huts braced against the long winter. Yellowknife, though, was charming: I hadn’t been off the airplane three minutes before the northern lights broke through, a green wave cracking across the sky. The next morning I wandered the shores of Great Slave Lake, past houses perched on the rocks of the vast shore like the most picturesque parts of downeast Maine. In between meetings with First Nations leaders key in the pipeline fights of the last decade, I wandered the trails around the capitol building—among other things, I happened across a pure black morph of a fox, one of the loveliest creatures I’ve ever seen.

And now Yellowknife is being evacuated—its 20,000 residents trying to drive south down the long road towards Edmonton, or being flown out in shifts from its small airport, even as flames and smoke lick at the city limits.

Residents watch the McDougall Creek wildfire in West Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada, on August 17, 2023, from Kelowna. (Photo: Darren Hull/AFP via Getty Images)
(Click on image to enlarge)

It’s important—in this year that has seen global warming come fully to life—to describe accurately what’s happening on our planet. And one key thing is: the number of places humans can safely live is now shrinking. Fast. The size of the board on which we can play the great game of human civilization is getting smaller.

Yellowknife this week, and Maui, and Tenerife  in the Canary Islands, and Kelowna, a beautiful city in British Columbia’s Okanagan country. The pictures from each looked more or less the same: walls of orange flame and billows of black smoke. In each case many of the people hardest hit were Indigenous; in each case fear and sadness and anger and above all uncertainty. What would be left? When might we return? Could we build back?

The story of human civilization has been steady expansion. Out of Africa into the surrounding continents. Out along the river corridors and ocean coasts as trade grew. Into new territory as we cut down forests or filled in swamps. But that steady expansion has now turned into a contraction. There are places it’s getting harder and harder to live, because it burns or floods. Or because the threat of fire and water is enough to drive up the price of insurance past the point where people can afford it.

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Question for this article:

If we can connect up the planet through Internet, can’t we agree to preserve the planet?

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For a while we try to fight off this contraction—we have such wonderfully deep roots to the places where we came up. But eventually it’s too hot or too expensive—when you can’t grow food any more, for instance, you have to leave.

So far we’re mostly failing the tests of solidarity or generosity or justice that these migrations produce. The E.U., for instance, has this year paid huge sums to the government of Tunisia in exchange for “border security,” i.e., for warehousing Africans fleeing drought:

‘We all heard that the prime minister of Italy paid the Tunisian president a lot of money to keep the Blacks away from the country,’ Kelvin, a 32-year-old Nigerian migrant, said on Saturday from Tunisia’s border with Libya.

Like other sub-Saharan African migrants, many of whom can enter Tunisia without visas, he had spent several months cleaning houses and working construction in Sfax, scraping together the smuggler’s fee for a boat to Europe. Then, he said, Tunisians in uniforms broke through his door, beat him until his ankle fractured, and put him on a bus to the desert.

But the size of this tide will eventually overwhelm any such effort, on that border or ours, or pretty much any other. Job one, of course, is to limit the rise in temperature so that fewer people have to flee: Remember, at this point each extra tenth of a degree  takes another 140 million humans out of what scientists call prime human habitat:

By late this century, according to a study published last month in the journal Nature Sustainability, 3 to 6 billion people, or between a third and a half of humanity, could be trapped outside of that zone, facing extreme heat, food scarcity, and higher death rates, unless emissions are sharply curtailed or mass migration is accommodated.

But even if we do everything right at this point, there’s already extraordinary quantities of human tragedy inexorably in motion. So along with new solar panels and new batteries, we need new/old ethics of solidarity. We’re going to have to settle the places that still work with creativity and grace; the idea that we can sprawl suburbs across our best remaining land is sillier all the time. Infill, densification, community—these are going to need to be our watchwords. Housing is, by this standard, a key environmental solution. Every-man-for-himself politics will have to yield to we’re-all-in-this-together; otherwise, it’s going to be far grimmer than it already is.

Matters are moving quickly now.

– – – –

Bill McKibben is the Schumann Distinguished Scholar at Middlebury College and co-founder of and His most recent book is “Falter: Has the Human Game Begun to Play Itself Out?.” He also authored “The End of Nature,” “Eaarth: Making a Life on a Tough New Planet,” and “Deep Economy: The Wealth of Communities and the Durable Future.”

Brazil mulls deforestation patterns as Lula government launches new action plan


An article from Forest News

Brazil’s policy makers are turning to scientists to help pinpoint deforestation trends in the Amazon region over the past decade that have contributed to greenhouse gas emissions, shrinking ecosystem services and biodiversity loss.

Mato Grosso landscape, Brazil. Photo: Icaro Cooke Vieira/CIFOR

On 4 May 2023, a virtual forum jointly sponsored by the Governors’ Climate and Forests Task Force and the Center for International Forestry Research and World Agroforestry (CIFOR-ICRAF) assembled science and policy experts to provide input for the new phase of the new country’s Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Deforestation in the Legal Amazon (PPCDAm), launched in June under the administration of President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva.

Preparation of the plan’s fifth phase – which will cover the period from 2023 to 2027 – has involved 13 government ministries, as well as other agencies, academics and civil society groups. Earlier phases of the plan guided government action from 2004 to 2020.

Brazil – which has the largest forested area in Latin America and is the region’s biggest emitter of greenhouse gases – managed to reduce forest loss by 83 percent from 2004 to 2012 after decades of increased deforestation. However, this trend has reversed in the past decade under different federal administrations.

In 2020, deforestation in Brazil soared to a 12-year high, widely attributed to the federal government’s weakening environmental enforcement and calls for more development in the Amazon.

“Deforestation has doubled since 2012,” said Raoni Rajão, who presented the PPCDAm on behalf of the Department for Deforestation and Fire Control Policy of Brazil’s Ministry of Environment. “We need to understand what happened between 2012 and 2020.”

Researchers have studied what has and hasn’t worked in Brazil and other forest-rich countries for decades. What remains clear is that action against deforestation must happen at multiple levels, from global to national to subnational to municipal.

As a result, basing policy decisions on scientific research has become a priority for state environment secretaries, said Carlos Aragon, Brazil country director for the Governors’ Climate and Forests Task Force, which is a subnational collaboration of 43 states and provinces working to protect tropical forests, reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and promote realistic pathways to forest-maintaining rural development.

As part of its decade-long, 22-country Global Comparative Study of REDD+, CIFOR-ICRAF has been targeting deforestation at subnational levels, such as states and districts in Brazil.

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Question for this article:

How can we ensure that science contributes to peace and sustainable development?

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“The purpose of the dialogue at today’s event was to help identify different policy interventions for addressing deforestation dynamics in Brazil,” said Richard Van der Hoff, Brazil country coordinator for the study.

The Brazilian government’s analysis, carried out in preparation for the PPCDAm, points to some major changes in deforestation dynamics that planners must consider, according to Rajão.

Nearly two decades ago, when the first phase of the plan was implemented, deforestation mainly occurred in an arc in the southern Amazon region, where forest was being cleared for industrial agriculture. With policies in place to help preserve forest on farmland, deforestation in recent years has been linked to infrastructure, with hot spots occurring around hydroelectric dams and along highways.

The 2004 plan also targeted large-scale deforestation, significantly reducing it in the following years. Since 2019, however, deforestation of large areas has been occurring again with impunity, Rajão said.

Deforestation has also been occurring in recent years in protected areas, Indigenous territories and settlements more than it did during the period of greater control, he said.

Besides clearing of forests, there has been an uptick in the degradation of standing forests because of fires set on farmland that escape into the understory.

“Fire is playing a greater and greater role in the deforestation process,” Rajão said. “People use fire so intensively and for such long periods of time that it destroys the forest structure.”

The Brazilian government’s analysis of shifting patterns of deforestation is similar to a methodology that CIFOR-ICRAF researchers are developing to classify deforestation patterns according to a series of archetypes, in order to determine which policies work or do not work in different situations, CIFOR-ICRAF researcher Julia Naime said.

The archetypes range from areas of past deforestation – classified as inactive, consolidated or fragmented – to hot spots or “rampant” frontiers, and “looming” frontiers, where there is a risk of future deforestation.

These archetypes are meant to help planners think strategically about deforestation patterns in a landscape, she said.

“We need to align infrastructure with environmental and climate goals,” Rajão added. “Otherwise, we will have activities that are completely disconnected.”

The goal is to stop illegal deforestation by punishing infringements, and to reduce the legal clearing of forests by promoting sustainable use, he said. Law enforcement fines and the confiscation of illegal items have doubled compared with last year, he added.

The science and policy dialogue in May was the third in a series sponsored by CIFOR-ICRAF and the Governors’ Climate and Forests Task Force. Sessions scheduled for later this year will focus on future deforestation scenarios and the final results of the Global Comparative Study.

For more information on this topic:
Pham Thu Thuy at
Richard Van der Hoff at

This work was carried out as part of the Center for International Forestry Research’s Global Comparative Study on REDD+ ( The funding partners that have supported this research include the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad), the International Climate Initiative (IKI) of the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), and the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry (CRP-FTA) with financial support from CGIAR Fund Donors.

Amazon Rainforest Nations Gather to Forge a Shared Policy


An article from Reuters (reprinted by permission)

Eight Amazon nations agreed to a list of unified environmental policies and measures to bolster regional cooperation at a major rainforest summit in Brazil on Tuesday (August 8), but failed to agree on a common goal for ending deforestation.

Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, who has staked his international reputation on improving Brazil’s environmental standing, had been pushing for the region to unite behind a common policy of ending deforestation by 2030 – one he has already adopted.

Indigenous groups call for bold steps at Amazon summit © Evaristo Sa / AFP

Instead, the joint declaration issued on Tuesday in the Brazilian city of Belem created an alliance for combating forest destruction, with countries left to pursue their own individual deforestation goals.

The failure of the eight Amazon countries to agree on a pact to protect their own forests points to the larger, global difficulties of forging an agreement to combat climate change. Many scientists say policymakers are acting too slowly to head off catastrophic global warming.

“The planet is melting, we are breaking temperature records every day. It is not possible that, in a scenario like this, eight Amazonian countries are unable to put in a statement – in large letters – that deforestation needs to be zero,” said Marcio Astrini of environmental lobby group Climate Observatory.

Lula and other national leaders left Tuesday’s meeting without commenting on the declaration. Presidents from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia and Peru attended the summit, while Ecuador, Guyana, Suriname and Venezuela sent other top officials.

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Question for this article:

Sustainable Development Summits of States, What are the results?

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Bolivia and Venezuela are the only Amazon countries not to sign onto a 2021 agreement among more than 100 countries to work toward halting deforestation by 2030. A Brazilian government source told Reuters in the lead up to the summit that Bolivia, where forest destruction is surging, is a hold-out on the issue.

Bolivian President Luis Arce did not address the 2030 commitment in his speech on Tuesday.

Brazil’s Foreign Minister Mauro Vieira said in a press briefing that the issue of deforestation “in no way whatsoever will divide the region” and cited “an understanding about deforestation” in the declaration, without elaborating.

This week’s summit brought together the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO) for the first time in 14 years, with plans to reach a broad agreement on issues from fighting deforestation to financing sustainable development.

But tensions emerged in the lead up to the summit around diverging positions on deforestation and oil development.

Fellow Amazon countries also rebuffed Colombia’s leftist President Gustavo Petro’s ongoing campaign to end new oil development in the Amazon. In his speech on Tuesday, Petro likened the left’s desire to keep drilling for oil to the right-wing denial of climate science.

He said the idea of making a gradual “energy transition” away from fossil fuels was a way to delay the work needed to stop climate change.

Brazil is weighing whether to develop a potentially huge offshore oil find near the mouth of the Amazon River and the country’s northern coast, which is dominated by rainforest.

“What we are discussing in Brazil today is research of an extensive and large area – in my vision perhaps the last frontier of oil and gas before … the energy transition,” Brazil’s Energy Minister Alexandre Silveira told reporters after Petro’s speech.

Silveira said they should conduct research into what oil is there in order to make a decision on the issue.

Beyond deforestation, the summit also did not fix a deadline on ending illegal gold mining, although leaders agreed to cooperate on the issue and to better combat cross-border environmental crime.

The final joint statement, called the Belem Declaration, strongly asserted indigenous rights and protections, while also agreeing to cooperate on water management, health, common negotiating positions at climate summits, and sustainable development.

As Reuters previously reported, the declaration additionally established a science body to meet annually and produce authoritative reports on science related to the Amazon rainforest, akin to the United Nations’ International Panel on Climate Change.

France: Les Résistantes 2023 – meetings of local and global struggles


An article from Les Resistantes

From August 3 to 6, 2023, the Larzac plateau will host the first edition of the Resistance – Meetings of local and global struggles! More than 570 local struggles are identified today on the Reporterre map, and this Meeting by and for struggles will be an opportunity to honor them and bring together this vast movement that is growing across France.

La carte de resistantes dans le sud de France
(Click on image to enlarge)

From local to global, many associations, unions and collectives also work on related, social, environmental, societal subjects, and would benefit a lot from meeting and helping each other more.

Concretely, these 4 days will be an opportunity to invite new people to join our struggles, to prepare perspectives for mobilization together, to train, to celebrate our victories, to see how to help each other and to strengthen the coalitions of struggles. geographic or thematic that pop up everywhere. Concerts, workshops, assemblies, meetings, training, screenings-debates, shows, children’s area, nature walks, participatory radio and many other things will be on the agenda!

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(Click here for the original article in French

Question for this article:

Local resistance actions: can they save sustainable development?

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The main objectives of the event:

-> Bring together the militant sphere that revolves around struggles without necessarily getting very involved, and encouraging them to do so through clear and numerous means.

-> Make visible and publicize the movement of local struggles across France, its scale and its strength, with a view to recruitment and credibility.

-> Bring together networks of struggles that do not speak to each other or speak too little, isolated local struggles or global organizations that fight on related issues, which would thus see that their case is far from being the only one and that they can find outside support.

-> Accelerate the dynamics of inter-struggle cooperation: the Meetings will make it possible to provide logistical, communication, organizational and financial capacities and skills so that the coalitions of struggles can structure mutual aid, planning and recruitment.

-> Put the struggles, the next deadlines and the next major global battles on the agenda of the media and many allies for the start of the 2023 school year.

-> Structure a long-term network of volunteers capable of supporting struggles and their networks over the long term across France.

-> Make a joyful time that celebrates our past victories and that allows us to prefigure dozens to come!

(Thank you to Emmanuelle Dufossez for sending this to CPNN.)

Three large South American economies sign an agreement in Cartagena to tighten tax policies against “ghost companies”


An article from Euro ES Euro

The First Summit of Latin America and the Caribbean for an inclusive, sustainable and equitable global taxation, had the participation of 16 governments of the region and is taking place in Cartagena. Twitter/@MinHacienda

Three of the main economies of South America (Chile, Colombia and Brazil) joined forces at the ‘First Summit of Latin America and the Caribbean for global, inclusive, sustainable and equitable taxation’ held in Cartagena de Indias, in which officials and Finance ministers from 16 Latin American countries met to establish a joint regional platform.

The objective of this initiative is to address the challenges posed by the global economic landscape, especially in relation to the impact of tech giants like Netflix, Spotify and Amazon in the region.

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Question for this article:

Opposing tax havens and corruption: part of the culture of peace?

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The summit, which included the participation of three other large economies in the region, such as Mexico, Argentina and Peru, represents an effort to discuss and harmonize the reform of certain shortcomings in the tax structure of Latin American nations, which are characterized by being one of the most unequal areas of the world in terms of wealth distribution.

The debate on the need to establish a worldwide corporate tax rate was the subject of discussion for a long period, however, the inherited social imbalances of the pandemic accelerated the urgency to take action on it.

The large economies of the world have already reached recent agreements to tax the profits of technology companies and other large transnational corporations operating in their countries with a minimum of 15%.

Former Colombian Finance Minister Jose Antonio Ocampo who played a key role in the preparation of the summit, emphasized in an article published in the daily Time  about the importance of facing the challenges posed by the digital economy.

Ocampo pointed out that large fortunes and corporations use “shell companies” in tax havens to evade a significant part of their tax obligations, which has aggravated inequality in the region.

José Antonio Ocampo led the preparation of the summit from his position as minister, highlighting how the emergence of the digital economy allowed corporations to use more “shell companies” in tax havens. Twitter/@JoseA_Ocampo

This is related to awareness of tech companies like Google, Facebook and Amazon paying taxes in jurisdictions with very low tax rates, where they establish their financial headquarters, rather than in the countries where they operate and generate revenue.

United Nations: Behind at halftime, but all still to play for in race to 2030 as top political forum closes


An article from the United Nations

This year’s High-Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development (HLPF) concluded in New York on Wednesday, laying the groundwork for the crucial SDG Summit in September

Over the past ten days, world leaders, policymakers, and key stakeholders gathered to review progress, share experiences, and discuss strategies for advancing sustainable development.

The HLPF serves as a central platform for monitoring and reviewing the implementation of the SDGs, which were adopted by all UN Member States in 2015. These goals encompass a wide range of objectives, including eradicating poverty, promoting gender equality, ensuring access to quality education and healthcare, and protecting the environment.
Focused on the theme of Sustainable and Resilient Recovery from the COVID-19 Pandemic, this year’s HLPF recognized the unprecedented challenges posed by the global health crisis.

Far-reaching impact of COVID

The COVID-19 pandemic has had far-reaching impacts on all aspects of society, exacerbating existing inequalities and hindering progress towards the SDGs. The forum aimed to identify solutions and strategies for building back better in a post-pandemic world.

Admitting that the world is “woefully off track” to achieve the SDGs by the 2030 deadline, top UN officials, ministers and policy makers as well as representatives of the private sector and major public groups discussed the ways to push forward the implementation of five out of the 17 SDGs.

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Question for this article:

Sustainable Development Summits of States, What are the results?

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They put under scrutiny progress made so far in universal access to clean water, sanitation and power, and reviewed ways to take advantage of new technology, also discussing the crucial role of urban development.

Lachezara Stoeva, President of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), who spearheaded the work of the Forum, emphasized the importance of innovation, technology, and high-impact partnerships. 

“We are halfway to 2030 and yet nowhere near to achieving the SDGs. The bad news is we’ve lost seven years. The good news is, we still have seven years and victory is within our reach,” she said.

One of the objectives that the ECOSOC President had for the Forum was to increase participation of young people. 

“Needless to say, engaging young people in the discussion is not a courtesy, it is an absolute imperative if we are serious about meeting the Goals,” Ms. Stoeva underscored. 

National reviews

Throughout the HLPF, participants engaged in over 200 high-level panel discussions, interactive dialogues, and Voluntary National Reviews. Thirty-eight countries provided data on their progress towards achieving the SDGs – one of the key components of the development agenda. Notably, for the first time ever, the European Union presented its review. 

One of the important takeaways from the HLPF was the recognition that achieving the SDGs requires a collective effort involving governments, civil society, businesses, and individuals.

It is crucial to foster multi-stakeholder partnerships and mobilize resources to accelerate progress towards the goals. The private sector, in particular, has a vital role to play in driving sustainable and inclusive economic growth through responsible business practices and investments. 

As the HLPF ends, it is essential to carry forward the momentum generated during this week, participants concluded. The deliverables laid bare at the Forum, are crucial for the success of the SDG Summit in September. 

“Together we must do our best to have our messages heard at the Summit. It is a critical opportunity we must not miss,” Lachezara Stoeva encouraged the HLPF participants, concluding the Forum’s session. 

G77 Statement to High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development


A statement from The Group of 77 at the United Nations

Statement on behalf of the Group of 77 and China by H.E. Mr. Alejandro Gil Fernández, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Economy and Planning of the Republic of Cuba, at the general debate of the high-level segment of the High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development under the auspices of ECOSOC (New York, 17 July 2023)

Image from Wikipedia

Her Excellency Ms. Lachezara Stoeva, President of ECOSOC,

I have the honor to deliver this statement on behalf of the G77 and China.

As we approach the midpoint of the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, we have witnessed how many are still lagging behind.

We meet today at a time of extremely critical juncture, in which developing countries face multiple challenges, particularly those concerning economic and social recovery from the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, enormous financial and debt difficulties, rising food prices, escalating climate emergency and an unbalanced economic order that perpetuates inequalities and poverty.

Humanity has before it a thick and complex set of documents, based on basic principles, which in theory are the basis for our sustainable development. However, the progress achieved is still insufficient for the realities of the poorest and most vulnerable. Let us not forget that poverty eradication is the greatest global challenge and an indispensable requirement for sustainable development.

The increasing global challenges, including the negative effects of climate change that threatens the very survival of many developing countries especially of Small Island developing states and deepen the vulnerability of all, the rising global interest rates, tightened financial conditions, high cost of debt and risks of debt distress, have deeply impacted economies in the Global South, especially in low and middle income countries. In this regard, the G77 and China expects to have a meaningful debate on the centrality of development finance to overcome those challenges.

Concrete actions by developed countries to deliver on previous commitments, as well as on the reform of the international financial architecture are essential for the transformation we are advocating.

Madam President,

It has been almost a decade since the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Addis Ababa Action Agenda. Multiple pledges have been made since then.

Contrary to the notion of progress, we find ourselves in a situation where our people is even more in need now than years before. The IMF is forecasting that a third of the global economy will be in recession in 2023. For the first time, UNDP has found that human development is falling in nine out of 10 countries.

The high cost of borrowing prevents the capacity of developing countries to invest in the SDGs and it also raises the risk of debt default. For developing countries in the Global South interest rates can be eight times higher than those in developed countries, as highlighted by the Secretary General, who has pointed out as well that today 25 developing economies are spending over 20 per cent of government revenues solely on servicing debt.

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Question for this article:

Sustainable Development Summits of States, What are the results?

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Madam President,

Since its inception, the G77 and China has been advocating for a new international economic order. Now it´s more evident than ever that these transformations cannot wait any longer. The UN Secretary General recently recognized that the Global Financial System is biased, morally bankrupt and skewed to benefit wealthy countries. This is no longer a plea only from developing countries.

The reform of the international financial architecture, especially of IMF and the World Bank, cannot continue to wait. We need to strengthen the participation of developing countries in international economic decision-making, norm-setting and global economic governance, so as in order to adapt to changes in the global economy. We look forward to fulfill the commitment of IMF to revisiting the adequacy of quotas and continuing the process of governance reform under the sixteenth general review of quotas and to conduct the shareholding review of the World Bank.

We welcome the UN Secretary-General’s proposal for an “SDG Stimulus” for developing countries, in particular the most in need and distressed countries, which aims at massively scaling up affordable long-term financing for development and aligning financing flows with the SDGs. We call upon the international community to follow up on the SG’s proposal.
We urge developed countries to fulfill their unmet ODA commitments to developing countries to achieve the target of 0.7 % of gross national income and 0.15 to 0.20 % of ODA to the least developed countries.

We urge the initiation of an United Nations intergovernmental process to establish measures that go beyond GDP in order to have a more inclusive approach to international cooperation and financing for development.

The Group emphasizes the need for special and differential treatment for developing countries in harnessing the developmental benefit of international trade and the importance of a multilateral trading system that relies on universal, rule-based, open, transparent, inclusive and non-discriminatory rules as embodied in the WTO agreements.

In this connection, the Group remains deeply concerned and rejects the increasing trend by developed countries to impose unilateral and protectionist measures that undermine the multilateral trading system and would constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination between countries or a disguised restriction on international trade, such as unilateral and discriminatory border adjustment mechanisms and taxes, negatively impacting the access of developing countries’ exports to the global markets.

The climate change agenda must be fully implemented in accordance with the UNFCCC and its Paris Agreement and upholding the principle of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. In this regard, it is critical to increase ambition on mitigation, adaptation and means of implementation, and materialize the provision and mobilization of resources by developed countries to tackle climate change. We are deeply disappointed that the goal to mobilize 100 billion dollars by developed countries per year up to 2020 was never met and we strongly call developed countries to fulfill this pledge. We also urge the full operationalization of the loss and damage fund by COP28.

It is critical an urgent promotion of technology transfer and capacity building as well as technological and scientific cooperation from developed to developing countries in order to foster sustainable development in its three dimensions and the full implementation of the 2030 Agenda.

Finally, we emphasize that as stated in the 2030 Agenda, States are strongly urged to refrain from promulgating and applying any unilateral economic, financial or trade measures not in accordance with international law and the Charter of the United Nations that impede the full achievement of economic and social development, particularly in developing countries.

Madam President,

The actions just mentioned have been enunciated in several occasions by the leaders of the Global South. The lack of progress must not be attributed to a lack of solutions. Actions are there. What it is required urgently is political will to implement what we all know is needed to overcome one of the most complex crises humanity has seen in the modern history.

We, as leaders from the developing world, have the responsibility to come all together and claim with a united voice the changes needed to ensure a sustainable future for the current and coming generations.

I thank you.