It has been argued that over the past century the control of information, especially through the mass media, has become the most important characteristic of the culture of war. Why?
It is because there has been such an advance over the past century in democratic participation that the modern state is forced to justify its culture of war. Since people in general do not want war, the state and its military-industrial complex must convince them that military preparations are necessary in the face of external enemies. This is a major change from earlier history when the state was not subject to election by the people and it could pursue its policies regardless of their attitudes.
In fact, we see that the mass media in countries with the most powerful military forces, such as the United States, are pro-military and continually publish propaganda against external enemies and give priority to news about unavoidable violence and disaster. They do not give place to peace initiatives.
The state retains a monopoly on certain actions of the culture of war, such as the right to kill.
However, the manipulation of the media through dis-information is accessible to non-state actors as well who are opposed to progressive change, in particular the wealthy ruling class as well as other right-wing forces. Although they are not necessarily allied with national governments, they act under the moral umbrella of state manipulation of the media.
Hence, for example, it was primarily the wealthy class in Chile and their international capitalist allies that was apparently behind the dis-information campaign that defeated the referendum for a new and progressive constitution in Chile.