How effective are mass protest marches?

A study, described in CPNN, finds that nonviolent resistance, including mass protest marches, are more effective than violent resistance in both the short term and the long term. The analysis, stemming from a research project on Nonviolent Resistance and Democratic Consolidation, is based on 101 democratic transitions that occurred within the time period of 1945 to 2006. Using data from the Varieties of Democracy Database the researchers analyze improvements for civil society organizations (CSOs, i.e. interest groups, labor unions, religious organizations, social movements, and classic NGOs) after democratic transitions. They compare cases where democratization was induced by an NVR campaign (like Poland and Benin) with transition cases that did not feature an NVR campaign (i.e. violent or elite-led transitions). The four aspects of CSOs that were evaluated include: (1) independence from government, (2) freedom from repression, (3) consultation of CSOs for policymaking, and (4) participation in CSOs.

This question applies to the following recent articles in CPNN:

2 October: 3rd World March for Peace and Nonviolence officially launched in the Spanish Congress of Deputies

Honduras: A massive march cries out for peace in Olancho

Indian farmers call off lengthy protest after govt assurances

Thousands demonstrate in France to stop violence against women

VIEW Reactions to India’s decision to repeal farm laws

Successful start of the Latin American March for Nonviolence, Multiethnic and Pluricultural

USA: Women Rally for Abortion Justice Amid ‘Unprecedented Attack’ on Reproductive Rights

Belarus: Women at the forefront of human rights struggle

Irate farmers storm Delhi on tractors as tear gas deployed and internet cut off in scramble to defend Indian capital

France: Thousands protest against bill to curb filming of police

‘Stop Lukashenko’: Hundreds of Thousands Protest Against Belarusian Leader for Eighth Straight Day

Tens of thousands march in southern India to protest citizenship law

A Worldwide Revolution Is Underway

Kazakhstan: Protests of presidential vote bring 500 arrests

Czech Republic: Prague crowds demand PM Andrej Babis step down

Sudan: top UN official demands cessation of violence and rape against civilians by security forces

Hong Kong protesters march demanding leader resign

Brazil: general strike highlights Bolsonaro’s weakness

Celebrating arrests, but still pushing for change, protesters rally in Algeria

Israeli woman hold mass rallies to protest rising violence against women

France: More people marched in the demonstration #NousToutes than in the demonstration of the “Yellow Jackets”

How Nonviolent Resistance Helps to Consolidate Gains for Civil Society after Democratization

Philippine Catholics march against Duterte’s deadly war on drugs

Live long and protest: the power of mass action is alive in Romania

USA: Women’s marches fight back against inauguration of Trump

Nonviolence Highlights in 2016

40,000 Create Human Chains to Protest Violence in Honduras

March of Hope gathers 20,000 in historic Jerusalem rally

Colombia: Youth for Peace: Mass marches in 16 cities across the country

Papua New Guinea: Thousands march to ‘make a stand for peace’

For CPNN articles on this topic prior to 2015, click here.